Q. 22

How did history a

Answer :

1. The identity of India gradually came to be associated with the image of Bharat Mata as the feelings of nationalism spread. First created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, it was later painted by Abanindranath Tagore. Calm, composed, divine and spiritual, Bharat Mata acquired many forms and was widely circulated across the nation.

2. Movements to revive Indian Folklore played an important role in developing ideas of nationalism. Folk songs and tales gave a true picture of a traditional culture that was believed to be corrupted and damaged by outside forces. It was increasingly being considered important in order to discover one’s national identity. For example – Rabindranath Tagore collected ballads, hymns, and rhymes and led the movement for folk revival.


3. Icons and symbols such as the tricolour (red, green, yellow) created during the Swadeshi Movement became the force that unified and inspired people in participating in the nationalist struggle. Expressing the Gandhian ideal of self-help, the tricolour with a spinning wheel in the center (red, green, white) created by Gandhiji became a symbol of defiance during the marches.


4. The reinterpretation of history brought people of various communities under the nationalist struggle. Many Indians made attempts at instilling a sense of pride by looking at the historical experiences of India in a positive manner. The British saw Indians as backward, incapable of governing themselves. In response, Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements.


5. The glorious developments of ancient times including the development of art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade had flourished were the focus of the emerging nationalist struggles. The colonization of India by the British was seen as the major reason for decline in India’s progress.


NOTE – The growing anger against the unjust policies and programmes of the British continuously played an important role in bringing thousands of Indians together. In addition, the various symbols of nationalism added to this unity which ultimately led to the downfall of British rule in India and thereby bringing independence.


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