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Answer :

Cyclones are centres of low pressure where winds from the surrounding high-pressure area converge towards the centre in a spiral form.

The process of formation of a cyclone is:


1) These are formed only over warm ocean waters near the equator. The warm air from the ocean rises up from near the surface thus leaving less air on the surface from where it has risen up. This causes the formation of a low-pressure area.


2) Air from surrounding areas with the high-pressure move towards the low-pressure area and this cool air becomes moist too and the cycle continues.


3) The warm air forms the clouds after rising up. The whole system of clouds and wind spins and grows fed by heat from the ocean and the water evaporating from the surface of the ocean.


4) The cycle continues and becomes faster and an eye forms in the centre. The high-pressure air from above flows down to the calmer eye downward.


Cyclones can be classified into:


1. Tropical cyclones


These cyclones develop in the Intertropical convergence zone [ITCZ]. They are formed due to the differential heating of land and sea. These are characterized by low-pressure centre a closed low-level atmospheric circulation and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.


2. Temperate cyclones –


Temperate cyclones are formed along a front where hot and cold air masses meet in mid-latitudes between 35° and 65°N and S in both the hemispheres. These are low-pressure areas which drive the weather over much of the earth.


3. Extratropical Cyclones –


Extratropical cyclones occur in the latitudes between 30° and 60° in both the hemispheres. They are also called “mid-latitude cyclones". Such cyclones produce mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, etc.


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