Q. 6 B3.8( 4 Votes )
Answer in d
The French philosophers played an important role in the French Revolution, by inciting sentiments and educating people about LIBERTY, EQUALITY and FRATERNITY- the bedrock of the French Revolution.
1. VOLTAIRE: He was the most famous philosopher of his time, and penned the Candide. He was against the feudal conditions in France, and critical of the Church. He believed that the Church spread superstitions, and motivated people to follow the lead, away from reason. He also advocated for an individual’s liberty of speech and action.
2. ROUSSEAU: He was a fiery man, who wrote the Social Contract. His book begins with the famous quote; “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains”. He sparked the fire of revolution in many hearts, as he called for the legitimacy of the rulers, and told people that only those laws are valid, which have the support of the masses.
3. MONTESQUIEU: He was a prominent thinker, who wrote the Spirit of Laws. He advocated for liberty, and proposed the model for separation of powers-a government having 3 independent organs i.e. the legislature, executive and the judiciary.
4. ENCYCLOPAEDISTS: Diderot and Jean d’Alembert were two men who wrote the Encyclopaedia. They advocated for social and political reform, criticised the church and called people to action
Conclusion: The philosophers ignited the flame of revolution amongst the masses. They told people that feudalism was artificial, and that all men were essentially equal. By advocating equality, they stirred the desires of the peasantry, and asked them to revolt and capture the resources of the nobility. In this way, they advocated freedom of speech and action, thereby laying the ground-work for modern-day ideas like Fundamental Rights etc.
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