Hardy- Weinberg principle; states that allele frequency in a population are stable and is constant from generation to generation. This is called Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Three reasons that affect Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are:
1. Gene flow/ Gene migration: due to migration, new genes or alleles are added to the new population and these are lost from the old population, in turn changing the frequencies.
2. Genetic drift: Any change occurring in frequencies by chance is called genetic drift.
sometimes due to changes in allele frequency in new population, some different species are formed.
3. Mutations: these occur randomly at a very slow rate. the sudden heritable change which is directionless in gene is called Mutation. This alters the genetic make-up of an individual.
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