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Himalayan Mountains lie in the north of India which runs from Indus River to Brahmaputra River in a west-east direction. From west to east they can be divided into four divisions:
Punjab: The part of the Himalayas lying between Indus and Satluj rivers is called Punjab Himalayas. It is also known as Kashmir or Himachal Himalayas. A significant portion of the Himalayas lies in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. The Karewa soil is found here and this area is famous for the saffron and other dry fruit cultivation. The range stretches for 700km in length and 500 km in width. It has a height of 3000 m with many glaciers. Important passes of the Kashmir Himalayas: Pir pandal, Banihal, Zoji La, Rohtang pass, Bara-Lacha, Shipki La.
Kumaon: The Himalayas east to Punjab Himalayas lying between Satluj and Kali rivers is called Kumaon Himalayas. The highest peak in this division is Nanda Devi. Gangotri and Milam are the important glaciers in this division. The major hill stations are Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet, Almora, and Bageshwar. The important passes are Thaga La, Muling La and Lipu Lekh.
Nepal: The Himalayas east to Kumaon Himalayas lying between Kali and Tista rivers is called Nepal Himalayas. It is also known as the central Himalayas. A major part of it lies in Nepal except for the extreme eastern part- Sikkim Himalayas. The important peaks are the Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu and Dhaulagiri. Nathu La and Jelep La are the important passes in this region.
Assam: The Himalayas east to Nepal Himalayas lying between Tista and Dihang Rivers is called Assam Himalayas. It occupies the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India and Bhutan. The Himalayas rise very rapidly in the plains of Assam and narrow at the foothills of Shiwaliks. It comprises of many hills called Aka hills, Dafla hills, Miri hills and Namcha Barwa. The important passes in this region are Bomdi La, Dihang, Debang and Bom La.
Purvanchal Himalayas is also known as the Eastern Mountains. It is a sub-mountain range of Himalayas. These Himalayas lie in the Northeast and south of Brahmaputra River. It includes five major hills- Patkai hills, Barail range, Manipur, Mizo, and Naga Hills.
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