Based on the observations of monohybrid cross between a tall (TT) and dwarf (tt) plant; Mendel proposed that something was stably passed down unchanged from parent to offspring through the gametes over successive generations. He called these things as factors. Now we call them as genes. So genes are the unit of inheritance. They contain the information that is required to express a particular trait. Genes which code for a pair of contrasting traits are known as alleles.
The genes present in an organism show a particular trait by way of forming certain product. This is facilitated by the process of transcription and translation (according to central dogma of genetics).
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