Fragmentation of land holding is the process of breaking the land into small size which can be cultivated easily. This makes easy for the farmers to cultivate different types of crops in different segments. Also, the fragmentation makes the average land holdings very small and also makes the agriculture uneconomical.
Measures to overcome the fragmentation
• Land reforms
The efficient implementation of the land reforms will help reconsolidate and equally redistribute the land among people. This will reduce fragmentation.
• Reduce the population
The fragmentation can be prevented by the controlling population. Increasing population is responsible for the division of land i.e. fragmentation. If the growth of the population is controlled and increase the standard of living then the fragmentation can be brought under control.
Land degradation is the loss of the quality and physical characteristics of land and soil. It reduces the economic value and productive capacity of the land. In its extreme case, land degradation can result in a desert-like condition. It is caused by both natural and human interferences, even though in most cases human interferences intensify the situation.
Measures to overcome Land degradation
• Afforestation- Land degradation and soil erosion occurs mainly because of the reduction in capacity of the soil to hold water. The main agent that holds back the soil during surface run-off is trees. Deforestation and indiscriminate cutting of trees have resulted in the erosion of topsoil. Thus afforestation and reforestation is the main way through which land degradation and soil erosion can be prevented. Planting trees helps in holding back the topsoil and reduces the impact of surface run-off to a very large extent.
• Reducing the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides- Land degradation occurs through the increased level of chemicals sprayed to raise the yield of crops. These chemicals result in land pollution and destruction of the physical nature and texture of land. Increased use of these chemicals kills earthworms, Rhizobium, bacteria and other microorganisms essential for maintaining the fertility of soil and quality of land. Reducing chemicals and using organic manure will reduce land degradation to a great degree.
• Changing cropping patterns- Cultivating the land for a particular season and then leaving the land desolate will reduce all the nutritional elements of the land. This will make the land barren. Thus the farmers have to practice crop rotation and intercropping to maintain the fertility of the land. Crop rotation helps in maintain the soil quality during the off-season periods of the main crop while intercropping helps to retain the quality of soil by sowing different crops at alternative rows along with the main crop. Mulching and covering the topsoil with grass or straw should be done to maintain the quality of land and retain its moisture.
• Reclamation of wasteland- The degraded land can be reclaimed and cultivated again by cleaning up the waste disposed of and improving the land management practices. Proper waste management system must be introduced to reduce the dumping of waste. Industries should be regulated and monitored to avoid dumping their chemical and toxic waste directly into land or water bodies without treatment. Collective efforts must be taken by the community for the regeneration of the wasteland.
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