‘For a long time, Congress Party had been a social and ideological coalition’. Justify the statement.
The Congress Party had been a social and ideological coalition for the following reasons:
I. It is accommodation of several parties to form the government reducing the dominance of one single party.
I. It accommodated revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the right left and all shades of the centre.
II. The Congress was a ‘platform’ for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement.
III. Many organisations and parties with their own constitution and organisational structure were allowed to exist within the Congress before independence.
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Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions :
The Congress evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professionals and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle class, and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement, it launched, its social base widened.
(a) What is meant by a pressure group?
(b) Explain the reason for the Congress to be transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition by the time of Independence.
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