Answer :

The diagram is given as:


The given charges of same magnitude placed at points X, Y, and Z respectively, forms an electric quadrupole.

Where, charge + q is at point X, charge -2q is at point Y, and charge + q is at point Z.

The point P is at a distance r from point Y.

Here, XY = YZ = a

So, YP = r, PX = r + a, PZ = r-a.

The electrostatic potential due to the system of three charges at point P is given by,

Since, r/a>>1

Then a/r<<1 which implies a2/r2 is negligible so it can be ignored,

Thus, potential becomes,

V =

Relation of potential due to quadrupole with r is V1/r3

However, for a dipole it is V1/r2

And for a monopole it is V1/r

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