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Female infanticide refers to the intentional killing of a female child at her birth. This has been existing in the world for many years and has led to the death of a countless number of girl foetuses. This is the highest level of brutality experienced in the world.
CAUSES OF FEMALE INFANTICIDE:
The main causes of this increase in the level of female infanticide are mentioned below:
1. People tend to believe that a son would be an economic advantage, would bring economic stability to the family by earning money and support parents during old age.
2. On the contrary, a girl would be an economic burden. It would also be necessary to arrange dowry for her marriage.
3. It is also believed that it is essential to have one male child to continue the family line.
4. According to certain traditions, only sons are allowed to perform the funeral of their parents.
REPORT ON FEMALE INFANTICIDE:
1. Since 2001 the girl child number in India has been decreasing then the male child.
2. In 2010-11 3 million girl child are killed as compared to 2001. This number is 1 million more than the male child.
3. There are now 48 fewer girls per 1000 boys than there were in 1991.
4. Research conducted by CSO- central Statistical Organisation in the report ' Children in India 2012- A Statistical Appraisal', ''During 2001- 2011, the share of children to total population has declined and the decline was sharper for female children than male children in the age group 0—6 years''.
5. According to this report, female child population in the age group of 0-6 years was 78.83 million in 2001 which declined to 75.84 million in 2011.
6. The overall sex ratio is improving, but the child sex ratio is declining.
7. The population of girl child was 15.88% of the total female population of 496.5 million in 2001, which declined to 12.9 % of the total number of 586.47 million women in 2011.
8. The sex ratio at birth in India is 112 males to 100 females.
9. The number of illegal abortion is greater than the number of legal abortion. Many women die due to the complications resulting from unsafe abortions.
10. According to the Population Research Institute, at least 12,771,043 sex-selective abortions had taken place in India between 2000 and 2014.
11. The daily average of sex-selective abortion is 2332.
STEPS TO REDUCE FEMALE INFANTICIDE:
1. The Government of India is taking many steps to bring a change in the behaviour of the people and to improve their mindset. Many schemes, laws and acts are introduced for the favour of the education of the girl child.
2. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao campaign was introduced in January 2019 to educate the girl child.
3. It also introduced a cash transfer scheme called Balika Samriddhi Yojana and Dhanalakshmi Scheme.
4. According to the Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic technique or Prohibition of sex selection act, 1990 which was amended in 2003 prohibits sex selection or disclosure of the sex of the foetus.
5. It also prohibits the sale of an ultrasound machine or any other equipment which is capable of determining the sex of the foetus to any person which are not registered under this act.
6. Medical termination of pregnancy or MTP Act in 1971 was introduced. It regulates the access to safe abortion and allows abortion up to 20 weeks in the case when the constituents of the pregnancy would be a risk to the pregnant women or could cause injury to physical and mental health.
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