Plants have evolved morphological and chemical defenses, which inhibits the primary consumers such as cows and goats as a defence mechanism. Examples are:
(i) The cactus has evolved morphologically to produce thorns as a defence against cows and goats. The thorns are sharp and cows and goats cannot eat them.
ii) Highly poisonous glycosidases are produced by Calotropis plant to inhibit cows and goats from eating it. Other chemical substances are nicotine, caffeine, opium.
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