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Explain various types of irrigation systems in India. How can efficiency of applied water be increased in agriculture.

Answer :

The various types of irrigation systems are -

(i) Canal system: In this system, the human-made canals receive water from one or two reservoirs or from rivers. The main canal is distributed into branch canals which have further distributaries or field channels.

(ii) Tanks: These are small storage reservoirs which catch and store the runoff of smaller catchment areas.

(iii) Wells: These are of two types - dug wells and tube wells. In dug wells, water is collected from water bearing strata. The water from the shallow strata slowly accumulates in a pit and water is lifted by mechanical means. A tube well can tap water from the deeper strata.

(iv) River lift system: It is more useful in the areas where canal flow is insufficient or irregular due to inadequate water release. In this system, water is directly drawn from the rivers for supplemental irrigation.

(v) River valley system: Certain parts of the country such as Karnataka and Kerala which lie along the Western Ghats use water that is discharged into the steep and narrow riverine valleys, during the rainy season. The bottom flat lands of the valleys are used for growing crops.

(vi) Drip and sprinkler system: It employs the overhead pipes for spraying water.

Efficiency of applied water can be increased by rain water harvesting and watershed management.

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