Polymerase Chain Reaction is used to make multiple copies of desired DNA using DNA polymerase and two sets of primers. Using PCR DNA is duplicated, and multiple copies of the original DNA sequence can be generated by repeating the process several times. The steps involved in PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are as follows:
(i) Denaturation – in this step the DNA strands are heated to a high temperature so that the strands of DNA separate and form a single strand. Each of the strands now acts as template for synthesis of new DNA strand.
(ii) Primer annealing – in this step the primers are paired with complimentary base sequences of the separated single strands of DNA. This is carried out at lower temperatures.
(iii) Extension of primer – in this step complimentary DNA are added one by one to 3’-OH ends of the primers by the activity of DNA polymerase as a result new DNA strand is synthesized.
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