Human insulin is prepared by using genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology).
The steps involved in production of insulin are:
1. Isolation of desired gene: the gene which form insulin in humans is identified is isolated from the human tissues. The cells are cultured and desired DNA is obtained with the help of restriction endonuclease.
2. Formation of recombinant DNA: Plasmid of the bacteria E.coli is used as vector. The plasmid is opened with the help of restriction endonuclease. Now, the desired gene from human is incorporated into the plasmid DNA and the two (DNA from human and plasmid DNA) is joined with the help of DNA ligase. The plasmid containing the desired gene is called recombinant DNA.
3. Gene Transfer to host: The recombinant DNA is then put into E.coli. When E. coli divides rapidly, the plasmid along with the desired gene is also amplified. Thus, several copies of the desired gene (gene which makes insulin) are produced. The desired gene is allowed to produce the desired product i.e., insulin.
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