Q. 135.0( 1 Vote )

Explain the signi

Answer :

The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched in 1920 by Gandhiji. It proved to be significant for the following reasons:

1. The movement saw the participation of people from all walks of life. Students stopped attending schools, colleges; lawyers refused to attend law courts. The working class also went on strike and refused to pay taxes.


2. It was a voluntary movement that asked people to renunciate any association with the British government. For the first time, it involved 600,000 workers. Thus, it was a mass-based movement.


3. The movement was widespread and even the farmers and peasants also called to non-cooperate. Hill tribes violated the forest laws, farmers refused to pay taxes, peasants refused to carry loads. Thus, they defied the orders of British.


4. It was a peaceful movement that entailed denial, renunciation, and self-discipline. It was the first step towards self-rule.


5. The movement was so strong and appealing that it shook the foundations of British Raj. It unified the whole of India against the oppressive colonial rule.


6. A new and strong leadership under Mahatma Gandhi emerged. It gave new confidence to the common people and the hope of a better future.


OR


The memory of partition is both painful and daunting. However, partition was an outcome of several factors. The factors are:


1. Two nation theory: the two nation theory advanced by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan strengthened the belief that India consisted of two separate nations, that of Muslims and Hindus. It was a founding principle of the Pakistan movement.


2. Communal Politics: the partition was an outcome of the divide and rule policy pursued by the British. The introduction of separate electorates in 1909 and further in 1919 deepened the communal politics. Religious identities acquired a functional use within the modern political system and the hostility grew between the two communities.


3. Provocative activities: Muslims were angered by “music-before-mosque”, by the cow protection movement, and by the efforts of the Arya Samaj to bring back to the Hindu fold (shuddhi ) those who had recently converted to Islam. angered by the rapid spread of tabligh (propaganda) and tanzim (organization) after 1923.


4. The consolidation of religious identities and mobilization of people against the other community led to the outbreak of riots in various parts of the country.


5. Provincial elections of 1937: the Congress won in all the provinces except the ones reserved for Muslims. The Muslim league aspired to form a joint government with the Congress. However, the Congress refused. This rejection consolidated their belief that if India was to remain united, Muslims will not be given adequate opportunities.


6. Strengthening of Hindu organizations: Congressmen were also active in Hindu Mahasabha. It was during this time that Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh and Mahasabha gained momentum. The RSS advocated the ideology of Hindu Nationalism and believed that India was a land of the Hindus. Thus, this thought widened the fears of the Muslim League.


7. Pakistan Resolution: the Muslim League formalized the demand of Pakistan on 23rd March 1940. It demanded a measure of autonomy for the Muslim majority areas of the subcontinent.


8. Post war developments: when the British agreed to constitute the Indian central executive council, the Muslim league came up with the relentless demand to choose all the Muslim members in the council. It also demanded a communal veto in the council. All these demands were too extreme to please Congress.


9. Failure of the cabinet mission plan: according to the cabinet mission plan, India was to be grouped into three sections: Section A for the Hindu majority provinces, and Sections B and C for the Muslim-majority provinces of the north-west and the north-east respectively. However, due to lack of clarifications, both the league and Congress rejected the proposal. Hence, the demand for partition became inevitable.


All these factors collectively led to the partition of India.


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