Q. 65.0( 2 Votes )
The role of environmental movements to meet the challenge of environmental degradation is highlighted below:
● There have been many environmental movements conducted by conscious volunteers working in different parts of the world.
● Some of them have worked at the International level but most of them have worked at the local level.
● They are among the most diverse and powerful social movements across the world today.
● They have led to the creation of new forms of political action.
● They have led to the rise of new ideas and long term visions as to what we should do and what we must not do in our individual and collective life.
● The forest movement of the South in Mexico, Chile, Brazil Malaysia, Indonesia, continental Africa, and India are faced with huge pressure.
● The level of forest clearance is increasing day by day in these countries despite three decades of environmental activism.
● The mineral industry is one of the most powerful industries on the planet.
● Many economies of the South are now being reopened to multinational corporations due to the liberalization of the global economy.
● The mineral Industries extraction of Earth, its use of chemicals, it's pollution of waterways and land, its clearance of native vegetation and displacement of people have continued to be a factor of resistance all over the world.
● The Western Mining Corporation, an Australian based multinational company was opposed to a vast network of groups and organizations in the Philippines.
● The opposition was based on antinuclear sentiments and advocacy for the basic rights of Australian indigenous people.
● Another common group of movements is against the construction of dams.
● Anti Dam movements are pro river movements that promote sustainable and equitable management of the River system.
● The first anti-dam movement was launched in the north in 1982 to save the Franklin River and its surrounding forest in Australia.
● It was an anti-dam campaign as well as a wilderness and forest campaign.
● Some of the leading anti Dam movements in India have also been gaining recognition.
● For example, the Narmada Bachao Andolan is one of the best known of these movements.
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