When light travels from one medium to another at the interface the light changes its direction or light bends. This effect is known as Refraction. When light travels from rarer medium to denser medium, the light bends towards the normal and this causes the object to appear nearer than they are.
The laws of refraction
● The incident ray reflected ray, refracted ray and the normal of the system lie in the same plane.
● The incident ray, coming from one medium to the boundary of another medium, is refracted by a rule derived from a physicist Willebrord Snellius. He found that there is a constant relation between the angle of the incident ray and angle of refracted ray. This constant is the refractive index of the second medium relative to the first medium.
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