Explain the problems before the Election Commission of India for holding the first general election.
No one has experience of general election then. How to have ballot box they never thought. Then election commission order to collect Parle biscuits tin boxes in each district. All collected Parle biscuits boxes of 15 kgs. They cut from top and sealed. Then another problem was ballot paper. First ballot paper was made like Cinema tickets each candidate has one slip. If you want to vote x then cut slip no 3 and put in ballot box and go.
Voter use to take with him all rest slips. Then in rural area, person voted and came out and gave his slips to friends then he use to shout Oh you voted to x, his slip is not in bunch. So secrecy of vote has been over. Some polling station has voter used and unused slips has been put in ballot box. All this mistakes realised after voting and in next election ballot box and vote slip has been changed.
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Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions :
The Congress evolved from its origins in 1885 as a pressure group for the newly educated, professionals and commercial classes to a mass movement in the twentieth century. This laid the basis for its eventual transformation into a mass political party and its subsequent domination of the political system. Thus the Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle class, and urban elite. But with every Civil Disobedience Movement, it launched, its social base widened.
(a) What is meant by a pressure group?
(b) Explain the reason for the Congress to be transformed into a rainbow-like social coalition by the time of Independence.
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