Answer :

In a monohybrid cross, for any character, the F1 generation individual derived from crosses between the two different varieties having alternative characters, showed only one of the character and never the other. This feature was expressed as dominance of one trait over the other. The trait which appeared in the F1 generation was called the dominant and the other which did not appear in the F1 population was called recessive. It is obvious that though, in F1 generation the dominant phenotype appears, the recessive is not lost but re appears in the F2 generation. This suggests that there is no blending of Mendelian factors in the F1 generation but they stay together and only one is expressed.

Therefore, two or more forms of a single character can exist in a single gene locus of a homologous chromosome within a species that may put different effects on the phenotype of an organism. In the hybrids between two individual displaying different phenotypes only one character is observable. This phenotype or the character (allele) which is expressed in the hybrid is said to be dominant and the other to be recessive, whose phenotype remains masked in heterozygous condition, but is only expressed in homozygous condition. This is known as the law of dominance.

Here the character tall is the dominant trait whereas dwarf being the recessive one.

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