Q. 93.7( 3 Votes )

Explain the four

Answer :

The four requirements that are essential for the production of goods and services are:


1. Land


2. Labour


3. Physical capital


4. Human capital


1. Land:


The land is a natural resource. It is the primary factor of production of goods and services. Right from farming to setting up an industry, the land is required. As far as agricultural activities are concerned, a fertile and well-irrigated land is needed. Land for other industrial purposes depends on its location and the possibility to build a good infrastructure.


2. Labour:


Labour refers to the people who actually do the work. The necessity for skilled or unskilled, educated or uneducated depends on the nature of the production activities involved.


3. Physical capital:


Physical capital is the monetary investment needed at every stage of production. There are two types of physical capital, fixed capital and working capital.


(a) Fixed Capital:


Machinery and other equipment which require one-time investment but the benefit of which can be used in production over many years is called fixed capital.


(b) Working Capital:


Working capital refers to the money and other raw materials which are in hand. Working capital is needed on a day to day basis and in every stage of production. This money is used to make payments and also to buy the necessary items.


4. Human capital:


The resource which has to be put along with land, labour and physical capital is called Human capital. Human capital is the storehouse of skill and product knowledge. This resource is necessary for the optimum utilisation of the other requirements.


All the four requirements, if properly utilised, can contribute to the development of the economy.


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