Northern plains lie in the south of Himalayas Mountains and north of Deccan plateau. It is formed by flooding of three major rivers- Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. It is also drained by many other rivers like Yamuna, Ghaghara, Gandak, etc. These are perennial rivers which form floodplains and deposit highly fertile alluvial soil in this region. It has the largest tract of 3200 km of alluvial soil in the world. These rivers carry a huge load of eroded soil and debris and as it moves down towards the plains, due to the gentler slopes, its velocity decreases, and the material carried by it gets deposited on the way creating riverine islands.
Many people live here who are dependent on agriculture for livelihood. The major crops of the northern plains such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, pulses, oilseeds, and jute are grown here. It is the food bowl of India.
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