Q. 174.2( 6 Votes )

Explain the formation of the following molecules using valence bond theory

a) N2 molecule

b) O2 molecule

Answer :

(a) Formation of N2 molecule


Nitrogen (7N14) has configuration 1s22s22p3. Its valence shell contains 5 electrons, i.e. 2 in s and 3 in p orbitals - 2px12py12pz1



if the px orbital of a N atom overlaps with other px orbital of another N atom giving (σpx – px) bond, along the internuclear axis. Similarly py and pz orbitals of one N atom overlap with py and pz orbitals of another N atom laterally and perpendicularly to internuclear axis given by (ϖpy – py) (ϖpz – pz) bonds. So, N2 molecule has a triple bond between 2 nitrogen atoms.



(b) Formation of O2 molecule.


oxygen (8O16) has configuration 1s22s22p4. Its valence shell contains 6 electrons, i.e. 2 in s and 4 in p orbitals - 2px22py12pz1



the py orbital of one oxygen atom overlaps with py orbital of another oxygen atom along the inter nucleus axis, a sigma py – py bond is formed.


Similarly, pz orbital of O atom overlaps with pz orbital of another O atom laterally, perpendicular to the inter nuclear axis giving pi pz-pz bond.


O2 molecule has a double bond between 2 oxygen atom.



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