Q. 43.7( 157 Votes )
Explain the following giving examples:
(a) Saturated solution
(b) Pure substance
(a) In a solution the relative proportion of the solute and solvent can be varied. At a given temperature, when no more solute can be dissolved in a solution, it is called a saturated solution. The amount of the solute present in the saturated solution at this temperature is called its solubility. For example, In order to obtain a saturated solution of sodium chloride and water at 20°C, a maximum of 36 grams of sodium chloride can be dissolved in 100 grams of water.
(b) A pure substance is made up of only one kind of particles. All the constituent particles of a pure substance are the same in their chemical nature. These particles may be atoms or molecules. For example, sulphur is made up of only one kind of particles called sulphur atoms, therefore, sulphur is a pure substance.
(c) A colloid is a kind of solution in which the size of solute particles is intermediate between those in true solutions and suspensions. Due to the relatively smaller size of particles, as compared to that of a suspension, the mixture appears to be homogeneous. But actually, a colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture, for example, milk.
(d) A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles do not dissolve but remain suspended throughout the bulk of the medium. Particles of a suspension can be seen with naked eye. The particles of a suspension are able to scatter a beam of light passing through them and make its path visible. When left undisturbed, the solute particles are able to settle down. This shows that a suspension is unstable. They can be separated from the mixture by the process of filtration.
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Give Reasons for the Following:
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Name the process associated with the following.
(a) Dry ice is kept at room temperature and at one atmospheric pressure.
(b) A drop of ink placed on the surface of water contained in a glass spreads throughout the water.
(c) A potassium permanganate crystal is in a beaker and water is poured into the beaker with stirring.
(d) An acetone bottle is left open and the bottle becomes empty.
(e) Milk is churned to separate cream from it.
(f) Settling of sand when a mixture of sand and water is left undisturbed for some time.
(g) A fine beam of light entering through a small hole in a dark room illuminates the particles in its paths.NCERT Science - Exemplar