1. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of Germany into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. These liberal initiatives towards nation-building were suppressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners of Prussia.
2. The initiative of German unification was ultimately taken on by the Prussian Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, the architect of this process; carried it out with the help of the Prussian Army and bureaucracy.
3. The process of unification, under the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck ended in Prussian victory after three wars over a period of seven years, were fought. In the end, the Prussian King, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.
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