Q. 1

Explain the condi

Answer :

The French revolution started in 1789 and continued till the late 1790s. Before the French revolution the conditions of France was as follows:-

• During the period of 1774, France had the Monarchical form of government. It is a form of government where king or queen rules the country. The state was facing financial problems due to the frequent wars. To meet these expenses and to maintain court, army, government universities and offices, the state increased the taxes.

• France had the society of estates – first- clergy; second- Nobility and third estate- which included the big businessman, courts, lawyers, etc, peasants and artisan and small peasants, landless labourers and servants. But the taxes were only paid by the third estate.

• Peasants also had to pay taxes to the Church called Tithes. It also included Direct tax called Taille and other Indirect tax which were imposed on the product of consumption like salt and tobacco.

• The wages of the employers was low which widened the gap between the rich and the poor.

• Due to the increasing population and natural calamities, the availability of grains and bread reduced leading to subsistence crisis. It affected the livelihood of the people, especially of the third estate.

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