Answer :

1. The Institution of family : The Institution of family from the pre-independence period has been a very important feature of the Indian society and culture.

Although, India has been known as the country of joint families all over the world, it has witnessed several changes with the new wave of globalization. For example – an emerging system of nuclear families is a significant change as compared to the previous organization and setting of family as an institution in India.


2. Jaipur foot technology : The invention of the Jaipur foot technology has been successful in transforming the lives of the disabled people in India because it has enabled the manufacturing of artificial body parts such as artificial limbs, noses and ears, etc. Due to this invention, the different-abled can walk bare-foot on rough surfaces, run, go cycling, work in fields, and climb trees and mountains and so on.


Additionally, not only can they save expenses on shoes, they can easily bend their knees, sit cross-legged and conveniently work on


wet conditions.


3. Urbanization : Urbanization refers to the process of concentration of population in a city or an urban area.


Rise in population is one of the major reasons leading to urbanization along with the changes in air, water and economic as well as social organizations necessary to sustain community life.


Focusing on the post-independence period, increasing urban population can be attributed to factors such as reduction in mortality rate, industrialization, lack of means of livelihood in rural areas and the ample of job opportunities in cities.


Note–


Mortality Rate – It is a measure of the no. of deaths in a particular region, scaled to the size of the population per unit time.


Industrialization - establishment of new industries


4. Changing economic life : The changes in economic life have been rapid in transforming the nature of work and working process.


Previously, every village was economically self-sufficient and a majority of the villagers were dependent on farming. Farm produce was distributed among artisans as payment for their work. But with the changing situation, rural areas are now engaged in agriculture and occupations ancillary to farming whereas the urban society, on the other hand, is occupied in non-agricultural production and tasks related to the service sector.


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