During the period of 600B.C.E. to 600 C.E. many new agricultural practices took place to increase the productivity and to able to fulfill demand for more taxes for the king, cultivators started to find new ways:
i) Frequency of Ploughs – One of the practices that cultivators started to use was plough. This helped in increasing the production and was popular in use. The use of a plough started in 6th centaury B.C.E. in the valleys of Ganga and Cauveri. The plough with an iron tip was used in areas which received ample rainfall. It was used in fertile land which resulted in increasing the production of paddy. The farmers had to work a lot to achieve their target.
ii) Use of Spade – Though plough helped in increasing the production yet its use was limited to only some areas. In Punjab and Rajasthan which had less rainfall, the plough was used in the early period of 20th century. Those farmers who lived in the north-east and min-mountainous regions, used spade to dig the field. The spade was quite useful in such areas.
iii) Artificial Irrigation – This was a new initiative for agricultural practices. For this purpose, the wells, tanks and canals were used. These were developed by the people individually. At some place, farmers also joined hands and worked collectively to develop these means of irrigation.
The production in the fields increased considerably because of these modern techniques adopted by the cultivators.
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