Q. 2

Explain in detail about northern mountain region.

Answer :

The Northern Mountain Region forms a natural barrier for India in the North and the North-East. It is the highest mountain region in the world, with mountains occasionally crossing the 8000 meters mark. The mountain range also boasts the highest peak in the world, the Mt. Everest. Thus, it represents the loftiest and one of the most rugged mountain barriers of the world.

The Himalayan mountains are spread from the west to east of northern India in the from of a large arc from Kashmir to Arunanchal Pradesh, covering a distance of 2500 kms and spread over an area of 5 lakh sq.km. Its width varies from 250 km to 400 m, and the width declines eastwards. Like other mountain ranges of Central Asia, like Karakoram, Tian Shan, Hindu Kush, Suleman, the Himalayan mountain range is also a part of the Pamir mountain system. Geologically, Himalayan mountains range was formed from the collision of the Indo-Australian plate with the Eurasian plate, and in the process the Tethys seabed were pushed up to form the Himalayas. Hence, the Himalayas are defined as young fold mountains.

The Himalayas consist of three parallel ranges:

1. Upper Himalaya or Himadri

2. Lesser Himalaya or Himachal

3. Sub-Himalaya or Shivaliks

1. Upper Himalaya (Himadri)

Average height is 6000 meters

The core is composed of Granite

It is perennially snowbound

Eg: - Mt. Everest, Mt. Kanchenjunga

2. Lesser Himalaya (Himachal)

Average height is 3000 meters

Is well known for its many hill stations

Upper slopes has coniferous mountains, lower slopes has grassland (Marg)

Eg: - Mussoorie, Darjeeling, Dharamshala, Nainital, Kullu, etc.

3. Sub-Himalaya (Shivaliks)

Have altitudes varying between 600 and 1500 meters.

Has thick forest covers

The valleys between Shivalik and Lesser Himalayas are called ‘Dwar’ in the west and as ‘Duns’ in the east.

Eg: - Haridwar, Dehradun, Kotli Dun, etc.

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