Explain how Indian partition was a culmination of communal politics that started developing in the opening decades of the 20th century.
The role and rise of different communal parties was an important factor for India’s partition. The Muslim League was founded in the year 1906 in order to work for the favour and interests of the Muslims. The demand for more political rights by the Muslims made the Hindus aware due to which Hindu Mahasabha was founded in the year 1915. They also demanded more political rights as well as representation in various government organisations for the Hindus.
Further, the Sikh League was founded and the Akali Dal also raised their voice in favour of the Sikh. As a result, such parties enhances communal feelings and brought feelings of separatism between the communities, particularly the Muslims and the Hindus.
Between the years 1920 and 1930, many such incidents took place which formed tensions like frequent riots and formation of many Hindu organisations that carried out Shuddi Karan or purification movement and initiated playing communal cards. Hindu identity was defined against the Muslim identity by the Hindu Mahasabha and music playing before the mosque became quite frequent.
Urdu became the language of the Muslims while Hindi became the language of the Hindus. There were enhanced communal feelings within Muslims and Hindus, whereby the Hindus were angered by the fast spread of propaganda or tabligh, and organization or tanzim, after 1923. Gaps between Muslims and Hindus widened because of such deliberate actions taken by these religious communities.
In the 1937 elections, the Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League, the communal parties, fared poorly. Apprehensive of their existence, both these parties initiated to use religion for securing the support of the masses. The British intelligently encouraged the Muslim League and when the Congress resigned in the year 1939, they received an invitation to create the government in the Provinces.
The British looking to weaken the National Movement now recognised that the Muslim League was, in fact, the only spokesperson of the Muslims and they were provided with the power to veto any political settlement. The League realised that all communal demands that were conceded by the British would barely give it anything when the nation became free due to which it demanded a distinct state as they feared domination by the Hindu majority when India would set itself free.
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Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Irrigating trees and fields
This is an excerpt from the Baburnama that describes the irrigation devices the emperor observed in Northern India:
The greater part of Hindustan country is situated on level land. Many thought its towns and cultivated lands are, it nowhere has running waters … For … water is not at all a necessity in cultivating crops and orchards. Autumn crops grow by the downpour of the rains themselves; and strange it is that spring crops grow even when no rains fall. (However) to young trees, water is made to flow by means of buckets or wheels …. In Lahore, Dipalpur (both in present-day Pakistan) and those other parts, people water by means of a wheel. They make two circles of rope long enough to suit the depths of the well, fix strips of wood between them, and on these fasten pitchers. The ropes with the wood and attached pitchers are put over the wheel-well. At one end of the wheel axle a second wheel is fixed, and close to it another on an upright axle. The last wheel the bullock turns; its teeth catch in the teeth of the second (wheel), and thus the wheel with the pitchers is turned. A trough is set where the water empties from the pitchers and from this the water is conveyed everywhere. In Agra, Chandwar, Bayana (all in present-day Uttar Pradesh) and those parts again, people water with a bucket … At the well-edge they set up a fork of wood, having a roller adjusted between the forks, tie a rope to a large bucket, put the rope over a roller, and tie its other end to the bullock. One person must drive the bullock, another empty the bucket.
(i) Explain the irrigation technology as observed by the Emperor.
(ii) What was the necessity of irrigation?
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Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Escaping to the countryside
This is how the famous poet Mirza Ghalib described what the people of Delhi did when the British forces occupied the city in 1857:
Smiting the enemy and driving him before them, the victors (i.e., the British) overran the city in all directions. All whom they found in the street they cut down … For two to three days every road in the city, from the Kashmiri Gate to Chandni Chowk, was a battlefield. Three gates – the Ajmeri, the Turcoman and the Delhi – were still held by the rebels … At the naked spectacle of this vengeful wrath and malevolent hatred the colour fled from men’s faces, and a vast concourse of men and women … took to precipitate flight through these three gates. Seeking the little villages and shrines outside the city, they drew breath to wait until such time as might favour their return.
(i) Who was Mirza Ghalib? What did he describe?
(ii) Why did British attack Delhi? Give two reasons.
(iii) How did the people escape from Delhi and where did they take shelter?History - Board Papers
Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow :
The world beyond the palace Just as the Buddha’s teachings were compiled by his followers, the teachings of Mahavira were also recorded by his disciples. These were often in the form of stories, which could appeal to ordinary people. Here is one example, from a Prakrit text known as the Uttaradhyayana Sutta, describing how a queen named Kamalavati tried to persuade her husband to renounce the world: If the whole world and all its treasures were yours, you would not be satisfied, nor would all this be able to save you. When you die, O king and leave all things behind, dhamma alone, and nothing else will save you. As a bird dislikes the cage, so do I dislike (the world). I shall live as a nun without offspring, without desire, without the love of gain, and without hatred…. Those who have enjoyed pleasures and renounced them, move about like the wind, and go wherever they please, unchecked like birds in their flight … Leave your large kingdom … abandon what pleases the senses, be without attachment and property, then practice severe penance, being firm of energy …
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(ii) Explain how did the queen try to convince her husband to renounce the world.
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