Answer :

Insulin has two short polypeptide chains namely chain A and chain B which are linked by a disulfide bridge. Insulin is released usually as a pro-hormone in mammals including humans; this contains an extra stretch called c-peptide, which is removed from mature insulin during maturation.

In 1983, Eli Lily, an American company produced insulin by using rDNA techniques by following steps:


(i) They prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to chain A and chain B.


(ii) Then they introduced it into plasmids of E.coli to produce insulin chains.


(iii) Chain A and chain B were produced separately.


(iv) Then it was extracted and combined by the help of disulfide bonds.


(v) And they formed insulin and gave the name Humulin, the company’s brand name for insulin.


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