Answer :

Family is defined as ‘a specific group of people that may be made up of partners, children, parents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents. It can be also defined as ‘a social institution organized to meet certain essential societal needs. It is a group consisting of parents, with or without children and relatives, united by bonds of love and affection and sharing common social activities’.

The different types of family


1)Nuclear Family


1. The nuclear family is the traditional type of family structure.


2. This family type consists of two parents and children.


3. It is ideal to raise children.


4. Children in nuclear families receive strength and stability from the two-parent structure


2)Single Parent Family


1. The single parent family consists of one parent raising one or more children on his own.


2. Single parent family is a mother with her children or single fathers with the children.


3. This structure denotes biggest change society


4. Single parent families are generally close and find ways to work together to solve problems


5. This limits income and opportunities in many cases,


6. Many single parent families have hold up from relatives and friends.


3)Extended Family


1. The extended family structure consists of two or more adults who are related, either by blood or marriage, living in the same home.


2. This family includes many relatives living together


3. Members work together toward common goals( raising the children and keeping up with the household duties)


4. They include cousins, aunts or uncles and grandparents living together.


5. This type may form due to financial difficulties or because older relatives are unable to care for themselves alone.


6. Extended families are becoming more and more familiar all over the world.


4)Childless Family


1. Consists of couples who either cannot or choose not to have children


2. The childless family is sometimes regarded as the "forgotten family’.


3. It does not meet the traditional standards set by society.


4. Childless families consist of a husband and wife living and working together.


5. Many childless families take on the responsibility together.


5)Step Family


1. When marriages end in divorce, and many of these individuals choose to get remarried. This creates a step or blended family.


2. It is formed when two separate families merging into one new unit.


3. It consists of a new husband and wife and their children from previous marriages or relationships.


4. Step families need to be trained to work together and also work with their exes to make certain to run smoothly.


6)Grandparent Family


1. In this family, grandparents raise their grandchildren for a variety of reasons.


2. The reason could be due to parents' death, addiction, abandonment or being ailing parents.


3. Many grandparents need to go back to work or find extra sources of income to help elevate their grandchildren.


The family structure and its types add to the diversity of society and play an important role in socialization.


OR


A tribe is a ‘social division in a traditional society consisting of families or communities linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, with a common culture and dialect, typically having a recognized leader’. A tribe consists of numerous families, clans, or generations together.


I. Dr. B. S. Guha has classified the Indian tribals into the following racial types. Tribes of India are broadly classified namely


(i) The Negrito:


1. The physical features comprising of very short height pigmy stature, dark black skin colour, woolly and frizzy hair brood nose, thick lip, marked facial prognathism and dolichocephalic head.


2. They belong to The Andam Uralis and Kadar of South India, the Onge and Andamanese of the Andamans


(ii) The Proto-Austroloid:


1. medium stature, dark brown skin colour, wavy and curly hair, thick lip, broad nose, doilchomesocephalic head.


2. Juang of Orissa, Kharia, Bhumij and Ho of Singhbhum district of Bihar, Chenchu of Andhra Pradesh, the Gond of Bastar, the Bhil of Rajasthan belong to this proto-Australoid racial group.


(iii) The Mongoloid:


1. medium stature, yellowish brown skin colour, fat face, oblique eye-slit with epicanthi’s fold, Scanty beard and moustache and straight hair.


(iv) The Nordic Group:


1. tall stature, rosy-white skin colour, wavy hair, prominent fine nose, thin lip and sufficient hair on the body.


2. The Toda of Nilgiri hills in South India belong to this category.


II. On the Basis of the Source of Subsistence tribes are divided as:


1. Hunters and gatherers


2. Pastoral groups


3. Shifting cultivators


4. Permanently settled cultivators


III. On the basis of language (classified by Dr. Grierson and Prof. S. K. Chatterjee)


1. Dravidian


2. Austric


3. Sino-tibetan


Different sociologists and anthropologists have given importance to diverse aspects or features of tribal society and there is no universally accepted classification.


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