Urine is formed by the nephrons which are the functional unit of the kidneys which is ultimately carried to the urinary bladder. It is stored there till a voluntary signal is given by the central nervous system (CNS) for the release of the urine. This signal stretched the urinary bladder as it gets filled with urine. In response, the stretch receptors on the bladder walls would now send signals to the CNS that passes on motor messages that would lead to contraction of the muscles of the bladder leading to relaxation of the sphincter. This releases the urine and this process is called micrturition.
Disorders of the excretory system:
Glomerulonephritis: It is the inflammation of the glomeruli of kidney. If this inflammation pursues, the kidneys may stop working completely, resulting in kidney failure. There are two types of glomerulonephritis known—acute and chronic.
Uremia: Malfunctioning of kidneys would lead to accumulation of toxic urea in blood. This condition is called uremia, which is highly harmful and can lead to failure of the kidney.
Renal calculi: Stone or insoluble mass of crystallised salts like those of calcium oxalates, etc. are formed within the kidney resulting in kidney stones.
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