Answer :

1. The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MP’s and MLA’s from changing parties. This step was taken, majorly, to prevent defection i.e. switching from the party a person got elected to another party, which was primarily done by members of political parties to become a minister or gain cash rewards.

2. The Supreme Court has passed an order to reduce the influence of money and criminals and therefore it is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving property related details and pending criminal cases against them. This step has evidently helped in making much information public.

3. The Election Commission has passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.

NOTE – Political parties are the major driving forces in a democracy and reform is necessary to ensure smooth functioning of democracy. Since parties play a major role in the political sphere, there is a need to address the challenges it faces in order to better serve the citizens of a democracy.

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