Migration refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas. Employment opportunities, higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure force people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas. It can be caused by the operation of both push factors and pull factors.
i. Push factors: They generally make the place of origin seem backward and less attractive. It pushes people to migrate from their place of origin to other places. It would be typically the result of unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.
Factors influencing the push factors
• Unemployment: Lack of employment in rural areas is the main push factor responsible for the migration from rural to urban occurs. In urban areas, there will be more employment opportunities due to factories and industries.
• Poor living condition: The cost of living in urban areas will be costlier than the rural areas. This cost is higher because there is a lack of houses and free space for the migrants. This less supply of houses makes the price of the houses and accommodation costlier.
ii. Pull factors: This generally makes the place of destination seem advanced and attractive than the place of origin. It will pull the people towards them for many reasons. Better job opportunities, improved living conditions, political peace and stability and security of life and property are some reasons to state.
Factors influencing the pull factors
• Health facility: Urban areas provide better health care and infrastructure facility which will attract the migrants from the rural to urban. Health facility in the interior areas will be worse than the facility in urban areas.
• Better climate condition: Urban areas will be most affected by high pollution and diseases. For the betterment of their lives, the people migrate from urban to rural.
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