The causes of conflict in Balkan:
1. Ideas of romantic nationalism and the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire contributed to the feelings of resistance.
2. The Empire had failed to modernize and implement the internal reforms so one by one the European subjects broke apart and declared independence.
3. They emphasized their nationality and looked back to history to claim their long-lost independence.
Explanation: Balkan was mostly under the control of Ottoman so their feelings of nationalism made them stronger.
School textbooks in Vietnam glorified French rule:
1. Vietnamese were portrayed as primitive and incapable of intellectual excellence.
2. They could only work in the fields and be ‘skilled copyists’, not creative or have the capability to rule themselves.
3. It wrote that the French rule had brought peace and protection to the Vietnamese labourers.
Explanation: French wanted to establish its dominance through education too so it tried to teach the children that their people were naturally weak.
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