Q. 65.0( 6 Votes )
Explain any five
The five socio-economic conditions of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century were:
• The main occupation of the people of Russia was agriculture. About 85% of the population earned their livelihood from agriculture. As compared to other countries like France and Germany, the percentage of the people engaged in agriculture was much higher.
• St Petersburg and Moscow were the major industrial areas. Craftsmen were the major people who were engaged in production. In Russia, when foreign investment increased and railway network improved, new factories began to set up in the 1890s. Iron and steel output and coal production also increased.
• Large factories were under the control of the government to ensure minimum wages and limited hours of work. However, factory inspectors broke many rules. Sometimes the working hours were 15 hours in craft units, and small workshops and rooms and dormitories were the accommodation available for workers. Most of the industries were the private property of the industrialists.
• There was a different kind of social group of workers. Some workers had a good connection with the villages they came from, and some came and settled in cities permanently. Workers were also divided by skill. 31% of the labour group was of women and also they were paid less as compared to men. Also, the division could be seen through the dress and in manners too. There was some association whose main objective was to help workers during the time of Unemployment and financial difficulties.
• The life of the peasants in Russia was little different. Most of the land was cultivated by them. The large properties were owned by the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church. Peasants didn’t respect nobles as they wanted their land for themselves. As this could be seen when they murdered landlords and refused to pay rent; this occurred in large scale in 1902. Peasants merge their land periodically, and commune was formed based on the needs of the individual families.
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