The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.
1. As an enormous increase in population was witnessed all over Europe, there were more seekers of job than employment. Population from rural areas often migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
2. Small producers in towns were faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England, where industrialization was more advanced. For example-This was the situation in case of textile production which was mainly carried out in homes or small workshops and was only partly mechanized.
3. In the regions of Europe, where the aristocracy enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
4. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country. For example- In 1848, food shortages and widespread unemployment had brought the population of Paris out on the roads.
5. In 1845, weavers in Silesia had revolted against contractors who supplied them raw material and gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.
NOTE – The Conservative rulers established political regimes after the defeat of Napoleon. ‘Revolution’ and growth of the feelings of Nationalism helped in uniting the people in the various European States. People at the same time also faced a lot of problems in their day-to-day lives.
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