Answer :


Francois Bernier was a Frenchman traveller. He visited India and stayed in the country for twelve years, from 1656 to 1668. He was closely associated with the Mughals. He tried to differentiate between the Mughal India and Europe in his writings. In the Mughal empire, there was no private property. Every land in the country was under the authority of the crown. The empire owned all the land and distributed it among his nobles.


According to him, the state ownership of land was harmful to both the state and the people. He stated many ruinous consequences that it had for the economy and society. Because of the crown ownership of land, the landholders could not pass on their land to their children. So, they were not interested in any long-term investment in the development and expansion of production. This prohibited the rise of improving landlord class who had the aim of maintaining or improving their land. This finally will result in the destruction of agriculture, oppression of the peasantry and a decline in the living standards of all sections of the society, except the ruling empire.


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