Migration takes place as a result of unequal distribution of opportunities over an area. People choose to migrate from places with lack of opportunities to ones with abundance. There are different economic, demographic, social and environmental consequences of migration from rural to urban areas.
1. Economic consequences – The migrants who send remittances to rural areas have a major impact on the economic growth of the source region. These remittances are used for buying food, repayment of debts, treatments, marriages, education, construction etc. On the other side, if migration continues to take place in an unregulated manner then slums tend to grow in urban areas due to overcrowding.
2. Demographic outcomes – The population within a country is redistributed because of migration with more people in the cities. It may also lead to improper balance of age and gender of the population.
3. Social consequences – Migrants become agents of social change as they come from a different background and mix with people of diverse backgrounds. People exchange ideas and technology and there is diffusion between the urban and rural areas. On the contrary, it might also make an individual feel isolated because of anonymity and lead to anti-social activities.
4. Environmental outcomes – Due to unplanned migration, urban areas tend to become overcrowded and therefore the pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure increases. It causes over-exploitation of natural resources, depletion of ground water, pollution of different forms, disposal of sewage and other management issues.
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