Answer :

BHAKTI AND THE STATE

1. In the 6th century BCE, there evolved a new form of worship in South India – the bhakti movement. They Focussed on the worship of specific deities such as Shiva and Vishnu and were known as Alvars and Nayannars.


2. The Bhakti Saints in their compositions opposed Jainisim and Buddhism; As a result, some of the rulers of Southern kingdoms like the Cholas, who supported the earlier Brahmanical traditions, supported Bhakti traditions.


3. They made land grants.


4. Some of the most magnificent temples were constructed under the patronage of the Chola rulers at Chidambaram, Tanjavur, and Gangaikondacholapuram.


5. Bronze sculpture of Shiva, one of the finest specimens of Indian art was also made during this period.


6. The Chola kings in order to claim divine support, built temples adored with the image of the Saints.


7. The kings also introduced the singing of Tamil Shiva hymns in temples under royal patronage and took the initiative to collect and organise them into a text.


8. The Chola ruler, Parantaka I had consecrated metal images of Appar, Sambandar (Bhakti Saints) in a Shiva temple.


Since both Alvars and Nayanass were revered by rich Vellala peasants and common people as well, so the Chola rulers tried to claim divine status.


SUFI AND THE STATE


1. The sufis accepted unsolicited grants and donations from the political elites and the Sultans in turn set up charitable trust and granted tax free land.


2. The donations were used to meet the immediate requirements such as food, clothing etc for the disciples.


3. The moral high status of the sufis attracted people from all walks of life. So the kings wished to secure their support.


4. The Turkish sultans not only associated themselves with the sufis but also sought their legitimating especially because the majority of their subjects were non-Muslims.


5. The sultans also depended on sufis to interpret the Sharia.


6. Besides, it was believed that the Auliya could intercede with god to improve the materials and spiritual conditions of ordinary human beings. As a result the kings often wanted their tombs to be in the vicinity of Sufi shrines.


7. There were also instances of conflict between the sufis and the sultans.


8. To assert their authority both expected certain rituals to be performed such as prostration and kissing of the feet etc.


9. Occasionally the Sufi saint was addressed with high sounding titles. For example: the disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya addressed him as “Sultan-a-Mashaikh”. (Sultan among Shaikhs)


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