The science behind the cultivation and harvesting of grapes is called viticulture. It is a primary activity and a speciality in the Mediterranean region of the world. Three distinctive characteristics of viticulture are –
a) Climate – Climate plays a very important role in viticulture as each grape variety is predominantly determined by the climate in which it is grown. Mediterranean climate is the preferred form for practicing viticulture.
b) Terrain – Hillsides and slopes are the preferred forms of terrain for viticulture. Vines growing on a slope can receive a greater intensity of the sun's rays and provide better drainage than plain lands. In the northern hemisphere, south-facing slopes receiving more hours of sunlight and are preferred in the cooler regions. north-facing slopes are preferred in the warmer climates.
c) Soil – Aerated, loose textured soil with good drainage and moderate fertility is preferred for viticulture. The soil type conditions change with grape types.
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