Answer :

(i){(x, y): x is a person, y is the mother of x}.


Here, (x, y) is an ordered pair which associates each person (x) to his(her) mother (y).


Now, each person will have only one mother so we can say that for each value of x there is an association to a unique value of y.


Hence,(x, y) represent a function.


Also, more than one person may have same mother.


i.e., two or more distinct value of x may have same value of y.


So, (x, y) is many-one function or surjective.


(ii){(a, b): a is a person, b is an ancestor of a}.


Here, (a, b) is an ordered pair which associates each person (a) to his(her) ancestor (b).


Now, any person can have more than one ancestor so we can say that each value of a does not have a unique value of b.


Hence, (a,b) does not represent a function.


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