Answer :

Given that: - If shopkeeper sells 1 pen she earns Re 1 as profit.

And on selling 1 pencil she incurs 40 paise as a loss.

i) Additional data: - For any particular month,

Number of pens sold = 45

Total profit/loss on selling both pens and pencil = Rs. 5

To find: - Number of pencils she sold in this particular month

Let, Profit as + ve sign and loss as - ve sign

Now, as Profit earned by selling one pen = Re 1

Therefore, Profit earned by selling 45 pens = Rs 45,

Or increase in money hence + sign = + Rs 45

Total loss given = Rs 5,

Or the decrease in money hence – sign = – Rs 5

As given, she incurred loss overall in selling both pens and pencil

Therefore, Total loss = Profit earned + Loss incurred

The loss incurred = Total Loss – Profit earned

= Rs (– 5 – 45)

= Rs (–50)

= –(50100)paise

Tip: - Try to convert a unit of the same items in the same unit. Therefore Rs is changed to paise.

USE 1 Re = 100 paise

Total Loss = – 5000 paise

Now as given, Loss incurred by selling one pencil = 40 paise

Or the decrease in money hence – sign = – 40 paise

So, the number of pencils sold = (Total loss in selling pencils)(loss in selling 1 pencil)

= (–5000) ÷ (– 40)

=

= 120 pencils.

(ii) Additional data: - In the next month, there is neither profit nor loss.

Number of pencils sold: - 70

Now,

Since there is neither profit nor loss

Therefore, Profit earned in selling pen + Loss incurred in pencil = 0

Profit earned in selling pen = – Loss incurred in pencil …… (i)

As given, Profit earned by selling 1 pens = Re 1

Loss incurred by selling 1 pencil = 40 paise (from eq. i)

Loss incurred by selling pencils = Rs 70

Or decrease in money hence, – sign = – Rs 70

= – (70 × 100) paise.

Tip: - Try to convert unit of same items in same unit. Therefore Rs is changed to paise.

USE 1 Rs = 100 paise

Total Loss = – 7000 paise

Number of pencils sold = (Total loss in selling pencils)(loss in selling 1 pencil)

= (–7000) ÷ (– 40)

=

= 175 pencils.

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