Answer :

a. The countries were to make a total shift to a capitalist economy by rooting out completely any structures of socialism because of the fall of communism. Some countries that had to make a total shift are:

• Russia

• Central Asia

• East Europe

b. The collective farms in the country had to be replaced by private farming because of the downfall of communism in the world. All the countries experiencing this had to experience a shift from the authoritarian and centralised socialist system to a more democratic capitalist system. Russia, Central Asia and East Europe had to adopt this. The introduction of capitalism meant the beginning of privatisation of state assets and corporate ownership. This also included the replacement of collective farms by private farming and introducing capitalism in agriculture.

c. With the fall of communism, the countries under the socialist structure like Russia, Central Asia and East Europe were forced to adopt other market structures. Since they had ruled out the third way, they had to choose from either becoming a capitalist economy or a socialist economy. The socialist system was more authoritarian and centralised, while the capitalist system was more democratic and market-oriented.

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