Answer :

Various types of positive interaction between species are as follows:

i. Scavenging - Scavenger is an animal that feeds on dead organisms.

Examples –

> phytophagous that feed on sap of the flower.

ii. Commensalism – In this inter-specific interaction one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.

Examples –

> An orchid growing as an epiphyte on a mango branch

> barnacles growing on the back of a whale

> cattle egret and grazing cattle

> sea anemone that has stinging tentacles and the clown fish that lives among them to get protection from the predators.

iii. Proto-cooperation - This inter-specific interaction benefits both the interacting species. In this both the species can live without each other unlike mutualism association

Examples –

> Crocodile bird rids crocodile of leeches sticking inside the mouth of the crocodile.

iv. Mutualism - This inter-specific interaction benefits both the interacting species. Here the growth and survival of both the species id benefitted and neither of them can survive without the other species under natural condition.

Examples –

> Lichens shows an intimate mutualistic relationship between a fungus and photosynthesising algae or cyanobacteria.

> Mycorrhizae are associations between fungi and the roots of higher plants. The fungi help the plant in the absorption of essential nutrients from the soil while the plant in turn provides the fungi with energy-yielding carbohydrates.

> Plants offer nectar, juicy and nutritious fruits to animals and they help to pollinate their flowers and disperse their seeds.

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