Monsoon winds are changes in direction of trade winds based on differential heating of the landmass and sea. Landmass heats up and cools down faster as compared to the sea. India is a peninsular country which has major water bodies in east, west and south. This differential heating creates different air pressure in different zones. Monsoon winds blow from a high-pressure region to low pressure region. Change in air pressures leads to change in direction of monsoon winds. The reversal of winds happens every six months during summer and winter monsoon.
The two branches of monsoon are Arabian Sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch.
Arabian Sea branch: It is also known as South-West monsoon. This branch of monsoon moves along the Arabian Sea. It advances rapidly and arrives in the North-Western and North- Eastern part of the country in the first week of June. The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone is a low-pressure zone located at the equator where trade winds converge and in June, it is located at 20-25-degree latitude (known as monsoon trough). Due to this shift, trade winds of southern hemisphere blow from southwest to northwest and northeast. These trade winds bring southwest monsoon in the plains.
Bay of Bengal branch: It is also known as South- East Monsoon. This branch of monsoon moves along the Bay of Bengal. It advances rapidly and arrives in the North-Eastern part of the country in the first week of June. Heating of landmass makes low pressure in the landmass which attracts southeast trade winds of the high-pressure area of oceans. Monsoon winds blow from a high-pressure region to low pressure region. This brings south-east monsoon from the Bay of Bengal. This merges with southwest trade winds in Northern Plains.
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