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Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory of motivation.
Abraham Maslow was a well-known psychologist. He had given the Maslow's need of hierarchy theory in 1943. His theory was based on human needs. Every human being has a hierarchy of five needs which are explained below:
a. Basic physiological needs: These needs are the most basic in the hierarchy and are called basic needs. For example, hunger, thirst, and sleep. In the organizational context, salary is the basic need.
b. Safety needs: These needs provide them safety and security from any physical and emotional harm. For example, the stability of income and job security.
c. Affiliation needs: These are the needs which refer to affection, friendship, a sense of acceptance and belongingness.
d. Esteem needs: It includes the factors of self-respect, autonomy, recognition, and attention.
e. Self-actualization needs: It refers to the need of becoming what one is actually capable of becoming. It includes growth, self-fulfillment, and achievement of goals.
This theory is based on the following assumptions:
a. The behavior of a person is based on
his needs. The satisfaction of such needs influences their behavior.
b. People’s needs are in hierarchical order, starting from basic needs to other higher-level needs.
c. A satisfied need can no longer motivate a person. Only the next higher level need can motivate him.
d. A person moves to the next higher level of the hierarchy only when the lower need is satisfied.
This theory faced criticism on the classification of needs and hierarchy. Yet it was widely recognized and appreciated.
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