(a) Antiseptics and disinfectants are also the chemicals which either kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms.
Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces. Examples are furacine, soframicine, etc. These are not ingested like antibiotics.
Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage system, instruments, etc.
Same substances can act as an antiseptic as well as disinfectant by varying the concentration. For example, 0.2 per cent solution of phenol is an antiseptic while its one percent solution is disinfectant
(b) Antacids are the chemicals which reduces the acidity in the stomach. For example, cimetidine, ranitidine, etc
While Antihistamines are the chemicals which counter the effect of histamines. They interfere with the natural action of histamine by competing with histamine for binding sites of receptor where histamine exerts its effect. Synthetic drugs, brompheniramine (Dimetapp) and terfenadine (Seldane), act as antihistamines.
(c) Soaps used for cleaning purpose are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids, e.g., stearic, oleic and palmitic acids. Soaps containing sodium salts are formed by heating fat (i.e., glyceryl ester of fatty acid) with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. This reaction is known as saponification.
Soaps do not give foam in hard water and thus can only be used in soft water.
Detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps, but which actually do not contain any soap. These can be used both in soft and hard water as they give foam even in hard water. Some of the detergents give foam even in ice cold water.
For example: Sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate, Sodium laurylsulphate, etc.
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