Q. 14.2( 21 Votes )
The process of unification of Italy was a long and tedious one.
1. The people of Italy lived in several states and the Habsburg Empire.
2. Italy was divided into seven states during the middle of the nineteenth century.
3. The state of Sardinia Piedmont was ruled by the Italian princely house.
4. The southern states were ruled by the Bourbon kings of Spain, the northern states were ruled by Austria and the central states were ruled by the Pope.
5. There were many regional dialects in the Italian language.
6. Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo de Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi were the three major revolutionaries who contributed to the unification of Italy.
7. Mazzini was the founder of Young Italy whose basic principle was to unite the scattered states and kingdoms into one republic.
8. The uprisings between 1830 and 1848 failed eventually.
9. Hence, Sardinia Piedmont was vested with the responsibility of unification.
10. Count Camillo de Cavour formed the Agrarian Association in 1842 and the newspaper Il Risorgimento in 1847.
11. With his diplomacy, he formed an alliance with France and Sardinia Piedmont defeated the Austrian forces in 1859.
12. Under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi, many armed volunteers joined the fray.
13. These troops marched into the Kingdom of Sicilies and South Italy and gathered support from the local people and peasants.
14. Finally, Italy was unified in the year 1861 and Victor Emmanuel II became the king of Italy and Count Camillo de Cavour was declared as the Prime Minister of Italy.
Thus, fragmented Italy was unified after many struggles and uprisings.
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