Q. 185.0( 1 Vote )
Describe the work
The brickyards of South Gujarat are owned by the Parsis or Desais which is the upper caste. The brickyards are also acquired by the members of the potter caste due to their traditional work with mud. The division of the labour is such that approx 30,000-40,000 workers work here on a seasonal basis. The workers working here are usually local or migrant Dalits. These workers are employed by the contractors and accommodated to work in gangs of 9 to 11 members each. These contractors go to villages and look for the workers. This type of hiring is mostly done to work in construction sites and in brickyards. The working hours of these gangs vary based on their capacity – quick gang takes 10 hours to finish and the slow one takes 14 hours. These gangs make 2500-3000 bricks a day. The men here knead the mud and make the bricks, children take this brick to the place where it will be dried and women and girl gang then take this to these bricks to the kiln where it will be fired by men. After all this, the bricks were loaded in the trucks. Sometimes the children have to carry the bricks at night when it is freshly made by their father. Initially, they carry one brick but when they reach the age of 9, they are allowed to carry 2 bricks.
In terms of industrialisation, to increase the production workers are made to work extra working hours. Along with this, they have to increase production in the given amount of time. Machines are thus used to increase the production process but it is also expected that increasing use of machines might replace the workers one day. Mahatma Gandhi and Karl Marx also argued and saw the use of machinery as a threat to employment.
Use of machines in the industry is only leading to few people actually working in there, for example - In Maruti Udyog Ltd., workers get the break of 7.5 minutes two times per day and lunch break of half an hour – total break of 45 minutes. Because of all this, production increases but the number of permanent jobs has been reduced.
In terms of service and knowledge-based work like IT, the professional workers are well educated and usually come from the middle-class family. It is said that work in here, should be self-motivated and creative for the professionals but rather they have to adjust themselves according to the deadlines. They have to work overnight to meet the deadline and average working hours are 10-12 hours, thus long working hours is a part of the IT sector.
In India, IT growth is often described as ‘Knowledge economy’. It is the debatable issue of whether “Industrialisation and the shift to services and knowledge-based work like IT lead to greater skills or de-skilling”. But according to the famous sociologist Harry Braverman, that the use of technology like computers and other services leads to only de-skilling of the workers. He further supports his answer by giving an example that earlier architect of engineer had to train themselves to be a skilled worker but now technological equipment like computer do most of the work.
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